Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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CARPENTER, Philip Pearsall, naturalist, born in Bristol, England, 4 November, 1819; died in Montreal, Canada, 24 May, 1877. He was the youngest son of Dr. Lant Carpenter and brother of William born Carpenter and Mary Carpenter. His education was obtained at the University of Edinburgh, and in due time he took his born A. degree at London university. He was fitted for the Unitarian rain-istry at Manchester new College, after which he held appointments on Strand, near Manchester, and later in Warrington. Here he became widely known among all classes by his great philanthropy. Among his efforts to give employment to the poor was the establishment of a printing-office from which were issued in rapid succession tracts with startling headings, which were freely distributed. He early attached himself to the study of conchology, under the guidance of Dr. J. Gray, of the British museum, and attained great proficiency in that branch of natural history. Later he made a catalogue of the Mazatlan shells for the British museum, and presented to that institution his own magnificent collection of shells, consisting of 8,873 specimens mounted on 2,530 tablets, all determined and many of them described by himself. In 1859 he visited the United States, and while there was occupied in arranging and determining collections of shells belonging to the Smithsonian and other institutions. The University of New York conferred on him at that time the degree of Ph.D. in recognition of his work. On his return to England he resumed his ministerial duties in Warrington, but in 1865 moved to Montreal, Canada,, which thenceforth was his home. For a period he devoted himself entirely to scientific work; but, in consequence of the failure of an English bank, he was compelled to teach. He presented McGill University with his general collection of shells, stipulating that it should be preserved as a special gift. As an authority on conchology arid the classification of mollusca, he was among the foremost in America. Besides his elaborate report on the "Mollusca of the West Coast of North America," prepared for the British association for the advancement of science, he published, under the auspices of the Smithsonian institution, "Check-List of the Shells of North America" (1860); "Lectures on the Shells of the Oulf'of California "(1860); "Lectures on Mollusca, or Shellfish and their Allies" (1861); and "The Mollusks of Western North America" (1872).
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