Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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Pedro Antonio Fernandez De Castro Andrade Y Portugal
FERNANDEZ DE CASTRO ANDRADE Y PORTUGAL, Pedro Antonio, count of Lemos, marquis of Sarria and duke of Taurisano, viceroy of Peru, born in Madrid, 1634: died in Lima, 6 December 1672. He was educated for the army and enjoyed high favor at court. He was appointed viceroy of Peru by King Charles II in 1666, and arrived in Lima, 21 November 1667. Soon after his arrival the rebellion of the brothers Jose and Gaspar Salcedo, rich miners of the province of Paucarcolla, which had begun in 1665, took such proportions that Lemos resolved to go personally to the seat of disturbance. He soon subdued the rebels, and instituted a court, which condemned the chief, Jose Salcedo, with forty-one others, to death. Gaspar Salcedo was banished for six years, and condemned to a fine of 12,000fr and costs. This sentence was appealed to Spain and reversed, Gaspar Salcedo was set at liberty and fine and costs returned to him, and the natural son of Jose, a captain of the same name, was in 1703 given by Philip V. the title of marquis of Villarica. Notwithstanding that the injustice committed by Lemos was generally acknowledged, there was in 1679 printed at Lima a work entitled " Estatera juridica en defensa del virey conde de Lemos y del Oidor Ovalle sobre la muerte del maestre de campo Don Jos6 Salcedo en 1668."
The viceroy had the City of Laycacota, consisting of about 3,000 inhabitants, entirely destroyed, and made Puno capital of the province. After this campaign he visited the provinces of Chucuito and Cuzco, and returned to Lima in 1669. During his absence in campaign, for the first time in the history of the New World, he did not leave the government in the hands of the Andiencia, but appointed his wife, Ana de Borja, a daughter of the Duke of Gandia, regent. He was a fervent Catholic, and entirely in the hands of the Jesuits, going to such an extreme that in the building of the temple of Los Desamparados, near the bridge of Lima, he daily carried building material as a common laborer, and often served as clerk or sacristan at mass with Father Castillo. In the early part of 1670 the news arrived at Lima that the famous English privateer Morgan had taken Chagres, captured Panama, and sacked the City. The viceroy fitted out an expedition of eighteen vessels with nearly 3,000 troops, but it arrived in Panama too late, as Morgan had evacuated the City. Later in the same year renewed rumors of a foreign invasion kept the country alarmed, and the viceroy ordered all the Pacific ports to be put in a thorough state of defense. The new Church of Los Desamparados was finished and opened 30 January 1672, and the viceroy with great splendor celebrated this, as well as the canonization of St. Rosa toward the end of the year, but in the last he contracted a sickness of which he died in a few days.
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