Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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LIMA, Jose Ignacio Ribeiro Abreu de, Brazilian revolutionist, born in Recife about 1770; died in Bahia, 29 March, 1817. He studied theology, and was graduated in Coimbra, where he was ordained priest in 1792, but suffered persecution and went to Rome to answer an accusation of heresy. On his return he retired from the ministry, was graduated in law in 1796, and opened an office in Pernambuco. When he heard, at the end of 1807, of the determination of the royal family to come to Brazil, he tried to induce the people of Bahia to prevent their landing unless the regent promised to give a constitution to Brazil. This plot was discovered and Lima was cast into prison, but set free two years later, and continued to work secretly for independence. In 1812 he published several articles in the daily papers, and founded the "Justiga a Progresso," which was discontinued a year later. In 1817 Lima was the leader in the republican revolution of Pernambuco. He went to Alagoas and Bahia for aid, and, being successful, was about to sail for Pernambuco when he was taken prisoner by the royalists, tried by a military tribunal, and condemned to death. He was shot without revealing his accomplices. He published "Un commentario as ordenances do reino" (1816).--His son, Jose Ignacio de Abreu de, Brazilian soldier, born in Pernambuco, 6 April, 1796; died in Recife, 20 January, 1869, received his early education at Olinda, and was graduated at the military academy of Rio Janeiro in 1814. Soon afterward he was appointed captain, joined the Revolutionary party in 1817, and was arrested, but escaped to the United States, whence he went to Venezuela and offered his services to General Bolivar. He fought in the battle of Queseras under General Paez, that of Angostura under General Soublette, and in Santa Fe de Bogota. In 1821 he accompanied the expedition to Ecuador, where he did good service, and when the Independents triumphed he accompanied Sucre in his expedition to Peru, whence he returned to New Granada, and was sent on a commission from that government to the United States. During his service in Spanish America he was promoted to general. The government of Venezuela admitted him to the military order of "Los libertadores de Venezuela," and that of New Granada inscribed his name among those of the liberators of the nation. After the war he did not mix in the politics of the Columbian republic, but remained faithful to Bolivar. After the latter's death in 1830, Lima went to Europe, and remained two years in Paris; but when the parliament of Brazil acknowledged his services, recognizing his rank of general, he returned to that country. He then began to collect documents for completing the history of his country, but his studies were several times interrupted by his labors as a journalist. In 1835 he was the editor of "O Raio de Jupiter," and from this year to 1840 he was a contributor to the "Mesageiro Nictheroyense" and "O Maiorista." In 1847 he began to publish in the press his ideas regarding civil marriage, which caused him to be bitterly attacked by the clergy of the Roman Catholic church. At that time he was a contributor to the "Diario Novo." In 1848 he published in Pernambuco the paper "A Barca de Sao Pedro." He retired from journalism, but for years continued to advocate his ideas. On account of impaired health he went to Reeife in 1869.
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