Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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MANS0 DE VELASC0, Jose Antonio, count of Superunda, viceroy of Peru, born in Biscay late in the 17th century; died in Spain about 1770. He served in the royal guard regiment, rose to the rank of brigadier, and was appointed in 1735 governor of the Philippine islands, but was retained in Spain, as his services there were indispensable. He was appointed in 1736 president of the audience of Chili, soon afterward promoted major-general, and, after the earthquake of 1737 in Valdivia, did important service in relieving distress and founded several towns. After his promotion to lieutenant-general he took possession in 1745 of the viceroyalty of Peru. In the following year occurred a terrible earthquake, which destroyed the city of Lima and inundated Cailao, killing 10,000 people. He was very active in helping the victims and in rebuilding the cities. On 10 February. 1747, he founded the city of Bellavista. In 1750 the Indians formed a conspiracy for the overthrow of Spanish rule in Peru; but Manso discovered the plot in time and ordered the leaders to be hanged. On 30 May, 1'755, he began the cathedral of Lima. He also ordered the palace offices, colleges, hospitals, and other public buildings to be rebuilt, assisted the missions of Peru, and fostered the commerce of the colony. General Manuel Areal, who was at that time president of Chili, succeeded him in the viceroyalty on 12 October, 1761. Manso held power for sixteen years and three months, a longer period than any or, her viceroy. When he sailed for Spain, 27 October, 1761, he touched at Havana while an English fleet was attacking that port and took an active part in the defence of the city, which finally capitulated in 1762. The governor, Juan Prado, and others were tried by court-martial in Spain, and serious charges were also made against Manso, who suffered a long imprisonment and the confiscation of his property, he lived afterward in poverty and in such strict retirement that the exact date of his death is unknown.
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