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TRUMBULL, James Hammond, philologist, born in Stonington, Connecticut, 20 December, 1821. He entered Yale in 1838, and though, owing to ill health, he was not graduated with his class, his name was enrolled among its members in 1850, and he was given the degree of A.M. In 1842-'3 he assisted the Reverend James H. Linsley in the preparation of catalogues of the mammalia, reptiles, fishes, and shells of Connecticut. He settled in Hartford in 1847, and was assistant secretary of state in 1847-'52 and 1858-'61, and secretary in 1861-'4; also state librarian in 1854. Soon after going to Hartford he joined the Connecticut historical society, was its corresponding secretary in 1849-63, and was elected its president in 1863. He has been a trustee of the Watkinson free library of Hartford, and its librarian since 1863; and has been an officer of the Wadsworth athenaeum since 1864. Dr. Trumbull was an original member of the American philological association in 1869, and its president in 1874-'5. He has been a member of the American Oriental society since 1860, and the American ethnological society since 1867, and honorary member of many state historical societies. In 1872 he was elected to the National academy of sciences. Since 1858 he has devoted special attention to the subject of the Indian languages of North America. He has prepared a dictionary and vocabulary to John Eliot's Indian Bible, and is probably the only American scholar that is now able to read that work. In 1873 he was chosen lecturer on Indian languages of North America at Yale, but loss of health and other labors soon compelled his resignation. The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by Yale in 1871 and by Harvard in 1887, while Columbia gave him an L. H. D. in 1887. He has been a large contributor of articles to the proceedings of societies and to periodicals, notably on the significance of the word " Shawmut," the supposed Indian name of Boston (1866), the significance of " Massachusetts" (1867), and on the Algonkin name of "Manitou" (1870). His larger memoirs include "The Colonial Records of Connecticut" (3 vols., Hartford, 1850-'9); ': Historical Notes oil some Provisions of the Connecticut Statutes" (1860-'1); "The Defence of Stonington against a British Squadron, August, 1814" (1864) ; Roger Williams's " Key into the Language of America" (Providence, 1866) ; "Thomas Lechford's 'Plain Dealing, or Newes from New England, 1642'" (Boston, 1867) ; "The Origin of McFingal" (1868) ; " The Composition of Indian Geographical Names" (1870); " The Best Method of studying the Indian Languages" (1871);" Some Mistaken Notions of Algonkin Grammar" (1871); "Historical Notes on the Constitution of Connecticut" (1872);" Notes on Forty Algonkin Versions of the Lord's Prayer" (1873) ; " On the Algonkin Verb " (1876) ; "The True Blue-Laws of Connecticut and the False Blue-Laws Invented by the Reverend Samuel Peters" (1876); "Indian Names of Places in and on the Borders of Connecticut, with Interpretations" (1881); and also edited "The Memorial History of Hartford County" (2 vols., Boston, 1886). The catalogue of Americana belonging to George Brinley was made by him at the time of the sale of the collection, 1879-'86, and gained for him the reputation of being perhaps the "most learned and acute bibliographer in America."--His brother, Henry Clay, author, born in Stonington, Connecticut, 8 June, 1831, was educated privately and for a time studied in Williston seminary. In 1851 he removed to Hartford and engaged in railroad business, but in 1858 was appointed Sunday-school missionary for Connecticut, which office he held until 1862. He was commissioned to the 10th Connecticut regiment as a chaplain, ordained a clergyman of the Congregational church, and served until the close of the civil war, except during a part of 1863, when he was in prison in South Carolina and Virginia, having been captured before Fort Wagner. In 1865 he was appointed missionary secretary of the American Sunday-school union for New England, and in 1872 normal secretary of the same. He settled in Philadelphia in 1875, where he has since edited " The Sunday-School 'rimes." During 1881 he travelled through Egypt, Arabia, and Syria, and while crossing the desert of Arabia Petraea located the biblical site of Kadesh Barnea on the southern boundary-line of Palestine, which had long been an object of research. He was Lyman Beecher lecturer at Yale in 1888. The degree of A. M. was conferred on him by Yale in 1866, and that of D. D. by Lafayette in 1881 and the University of the city of New York in 1882. His published books are many; the more recent have been republished in London, and include " Some Army Sermons" (Hartford, 1864) ; "The Knightly Soldier" (Boston, 1865); "A Useful Life and a Fragrant Memory" (Philadelphia, 1866); "Falling in Harness" (1867) ; "The Captured Scout of the Army of the James" (Boston, 1869) ; "Children in the Temple" (Springfield, 1869); "The Worth of an Historic Consciousness" (Hartford, 1870); "A Model Superintendent" (New York, 1880); Kadesh Barnea" (1884); " Teaching and Teachers " (Philadelphia, 1884); " The Blood Covenant " (New York, 1885) ; and "Yale Lectures on the Sun-day-School" (1888).--Another brother, Gurdon, artist, born in Stonington, Connecticut, 5 May, 1841, studied art under various teachers in Hartford, Connecticut, and also for a time under James M. Hart in New York. He is more successful in his paintings of fish, his best-known pictures being " Over the Fall," "A Plunge for Life," and " A Critical Moment." His last work in art was the illustration of Mrs. Annie Trumbull Slosson's "The China Hunters' Club" (New York, 1878). Of late years he has devoted himself principally to the study of ornithology, and has written "Names and Portraits of Birds which interest Gunners, with Descriptions in Language understanded of the People" (New York, 1888).
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