Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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WHITE, Israel Charles, geologist, born in Monongalia county, West Virginia, 1 November, 1848. He was graduated at West Virginia university in 1872, and took a graduate course in geology and chemistry in 1875-'6 in Columbia school of mines. In 1875 he was appointed assistant on the second geological survey of Pennsylvania, where he remained until 1884, and since that year he has been connected with the United States geological survey. He was called to the chair of geology in the West Virginia university in 1877, and still retains that appointment. Professor White was the first geologist to harmonize the Pennsylvania and Ohio coal-measures, and in 1882 he recognized as belonging to the Salina formation rocks in Montour and Columbia counties that had previously been classified either with the Clinton or Lower Helderberg groups. He was also the first to apply the anticlinal idea to the successful location of natural gas and oil wells, and announced his theory in 1885. Professor White is a member of the American philosophical society and a fellow of the American association for the advancement of science, and has published papers in their transactions and in the " American .Journal of Science." He is also the author of nine volumes of the reports of the geological survey of Pennsylvania.
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