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WAYLAND, Francis, educator, born in New York city, 11 March, 1796; died in Providence, Rhode Island, 30 September, 1865. He was the son of Francis Wayland, a Baptist minister, who emigrated from England, and was the pastor of churches in Poughkeepsie, Troy, Albany, and Saratoga Springs. The son was graduated in 1813 at Union college, then under the presidency of Dr. Eliphalet Nott, whose spirit and methods influenced largely his own future course as a college president. Immediately upon his graduation he spent three years in the study of medicine. Having meanwhile united with a Baptist church, and feeling that duty called him to the Christian ministry, he entered in 1816 the Andover theological seminary, but at the end of a year he left to become a tutor in Union college, which office he held for four years. He was called in 1821 to the pastorate of the 1st Baptist church in Boston, and soon became recognized as a man of rich and varied gifts. His preaching, though unaided by an attractive delivery, was greatly admired for its broad and deep thoughtfulness and its fine grace of expression. His sermons on "The Moral Dignity of the Missionary Enterprise" (1823) and "The Duties of an American Citizen" (1825) placed him in the front rank of American preachers. The former, in particular, has obtained wide celebrity. In 1826 he accepted a professorship in Union college, but he left it in February, 1827, to take the presidency of Brown university, which office he filled for twenty-eight years with distinguished honor to himself and the highest advantage to the university. It felt at once in all its departments the inspiration of a new life, and speedily enjoyed a greatly enlarged prosperity. Dr. Wayland's instructions in psychology, political economy, and ethics, especially the last, were in a high degree stimulating to his pupils, while his strong personality was felt by the students of every class as an educating and elevating force. Not satisfied with the old text-books, he prepared lectures on all the subjects that he taught. He delivered weekly sermons to the students in the chapel, often attended their prayer-meetings, and gathered them for Bible instruction. In all these services he was singularly effective. Though he was naturally conservative, his clear perceptions and sound judgment made him a pioneer reformer in educational methods. In 1850 his views led to a reorganization of Brown university, so as to give a place to the more modern branches of learning, and to allow a larger liberty in the election of studies, changes that since his day have almost universally been adopted. After his retirement from the presidency in 1855 he served for a year and a half as pastor of the 1st Baptist church in Providence. Subsequently he gave his strength to religious and humane work, devoting much time to the inmates of the Rhode Island state prison and reform school. He received the degree of D.D. from Union in 1827 and Harvard in 1829, and that of LL.D. from the latter in 1852. Dr. Wayland was a prolific author. Besides about fifty sermons and addresses, his published works are "Occasional Discourses" (Boston, 1833) ; "Elements of Moral Science " (New York, 1835; abridged ed. for schools, Boston, 1836; with notes and analysis by Joseph Angus, D. D., London, 1857 ; with analysis by Reverend George B. Wheeler, 1863; translated into several foreign languages)'" Elements of Political Economy" (New York, 1837; abridged ed., Boston, 1840);" Moral Law of Accumulation" (Boston, 1837); " The Limitations of Human Responsibility" (1838); "Thoughts on the Present Collegiate System in the United States" (1842); "Domestic Slavery considered as a Scriptural Institution," a correspondence between Dr. Wayland and Reverend Richard Fuller, of Beaufort, South Carolina (1845); "Sermons delivered in the Chapel of Brown University" (1849); "Report to the Corporation of Brown University on the Changes in the System of Collegiate Education" (Providence, 1850); memoirs of Harriet Ware (1850) and Adoniram Judson (2 vols., Boston, 1853); " Elements of Intellectual Philosophy" (1854) ; "Notes on the Principles and Practices of Baptist Churches" (1857); "Sermons to the Churches" (1858); "Salvation by Christ" (1859);" Letters on the Ministry of the Gospel," addressed to Heman Lincoln (1863); and "Memoir of Thomas Chalmers, D. D." (1864). See a memoir, with selections from his personal reminiscences and correspondence, by his sons, Francis and Heman Lincoln Wayland (2 vols., New York, 1867), and his funeral sermon by Professor George I. Chace (1866). --His son, Francis, lawyer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 23 August, 1826, was graduated at Brown in 1846, studied at Harvard law-school and in Springfield, Massachusetts, and began practice in Worcester in 1850. In 1858 he removed to New Haven, Connecticut, and in 1864 he was elected judge of probate for that city. In 1869 he was elected lieutenant-governor of Connecticut. In 1872 he was appointed to a professorship in the law-school of Yale, and in the next year he was made dean of that school. Dr. Wayland is president of the boards of directors of the Connecticut state prison, the Connecticut prison association, the National prison association, the Organized charities of New Haven, and the Connecticut general hospital in that city. He was president of the American Baptist education society, and is vice-president of the American Baptist missionary union. In 1874 he was president of the board of visitors to the United States military academy at West Point, and in 1880 he was vice-president of the board of visitors to the United States naval academy at Annapolis. He was for several years chairman of the jurisprudence department of the American social science association, and was chosen in 1880 president of that body. He is active in the educational and benevolent enterprises of the Baptist denomination, to which he belongs. He received in 1879 from Rochester university the degree of LL.D., and the same from Brown in 1881. Besides articles in the "Atlantic Monthly," he published papers on" Tramps "and" Out-Door Relief," prepared for the American social science association.--Another son, Heman Lincoln, clergyman, born in Providence, Rhode Island, 23 April, 1830, was graduated at Brown in 1849, and, after spending a year (1849-'50) in studying theology at Newton, taught for a short time at the academy in Townshend, Vermont, and spent the years 1852-'4 as tutor in the University of Rochester. From 1854 till 1861 he was pastor of the Main street Baptist church in Worcester, Massachusetts, and during the civil war he served as chaplain of the 7th Connecticut volunteers. After the war he spent a year in missionary work among the colored people in Nashville, Tennessee, and from 1865 till 1870 he was professor of rhetoric and logic in Kalamazoo college, Michigan He was president of Franklin college, Indiana, for two years, and then became editor of the "National Baptist " in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which office he still holds. He received the degree of D.D. from Brown in 1869. Dr. Wayland has contributed articles to the "New Englander" and the" Baptist Quarterly," and has published numerous sermons and addresses on education.
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