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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor

 



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Francisco de Miranda

MIRANDA, Francisco de - A Stan Klos Biography

MIRANDA, Francisco de (me-ran'-dah), Venezuelan soldier, born in Caracas on 9 June 1756; died in Cadiz, Spain on 14 July 1816. At seventeen years, he enlisted as a cadet in the Spanish military service. After attaining the rank of captain, he served gallantly in the American Revolution in 1779 and 1781. He was then sent to Cuba, where he befriended Manuel Cajigal, the captain general. However, allegations of illegal trading forced de Miranda to flee to Europe. He traveled through England, Turkey, Germany, and Russia. He served in the French Revolution, and attained the rank of major general. In the campaign of 1793, he was taken prisoner at Neerwinden, and was tried for, but acquitted of mismanagement. The name of de Miranda is on the "Arc de Triomphe" in Paris among those of the great captains that fought in that Revolution.

In 1797, the Directory condemned him, but he escaped to England, where in 1803, he vainly endeavored to prevail on William Pitt to aid him. He returned to the United States, where he found the means to equip two vessels and about 200 volunteers, with whom he sailed for Venezuela in the hopes of securing independence for that country. At Ocumare, 25 March 1806, he was attacked, and lost a great number of his men. The Captain General had him burned in effigy and placed a $50,000 bounty on his head. Between 4th and 8th August 1806, de Miranda took the town of Coro, but, seeing that the people did not actively support the occupation, he left for Europe, where, with Simon Bolivar, he sought aid for his enterprise.  On 5 December 1810, de Miranda returned with Bolivar to Caracas, where de Miranda organized the government that had its origin in the Revolution of 19 April 1810, became vice-president of congress, and signed the Act of Independence of 5 July 1811 and the Constitution of 21 December 1811. He took the command-in-chief of the army, forced the surrender of Valencia on 13 August 1811, and made his triumphant entry into Caracas on 26 April 1812. By the treachery of Pedro Ponce, he lost the Battle of Valencia on 14 May 1812, and retreated to Cabrera, where instead of giving the necessary aid to Puerto Cabello, he lay siege to Maracay and Victoria. This decision caused discontent among his companions within the junta. He was finally forced to capitulate in Victoria on 25 July 1812, and, accused of being a traitor, he was taken prisoner on 30 July 1812 by the revolutionary authorities in Laguayra. He afterward fell into the hands of the Spanish authorities, and was sent in 1813 to Cadiz, where he died in the dungeons of the Inquisition with a chain around his neck.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia Daniel L. Glennon, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

MIRANDA, Francisco (me-ran'-dah), Venezuelan soldier, born in Caracas, 9 June, 1756" died in Cadiz, Spain, 14 July, 1816. He entered the Spanish military service as a cadet at the age of seventeen years, and, after attaining the rank of captain, served in the United States in 1779 and 1781. He was then sent to Cuba, where Manuel Cajigal, the captain-general, became his firm friend, but, on account of trading illegally, he was forced to fly to Europe, where he travelled through England, Turkey, Germany, and Russia. Iie served in the French revolution, and reached the rank of major-general. In the campaign of 1793 he was taken prisoner at Neerwinden, and brought to trial for mismanagement, but was acquitted. The name of Miranda is on the "arc de triomphe" in Paris among those of the great captains that fought in the revolution. In 1797 he was condemned by the Directory, and escaped to England, where in 1803 he vainly endeavored to prevail on William Pitt to aid him. He then went to the United States, where he found means to fit out two vessels and about 200 volunteers, with whom he sailed for Venezuela, with the object of securing the independence of that country. At Ocumare, 25 March, 1806, he was attacked, and lost a great number of his men, and the captain-general caused him to be burned in effigy, offering $50,000 for his head. Between 4 and 8 August of the same year Miranda took the town of Coro, but, seeing that the people did not take an active part in his favor, he left for Europe, where, with Simon Bolivar, he sought aid for his enterprise. They returned together on 5 December, 1810, to Caracas, where Miranda organized the government that had its origin in the revolution of 19 April, became vice-president of con-tress, and signed the constitution of 21 December and the act of independence of 5 July, 1811. He took the command-in-chief of the army, forced the surrender of Valencia, 13 August, 1811, and made his triumphant entry into Caracas. 26 April, 1812. By the treachery of Pedro Ponce, he lost the battle of Valencia, 14 May, 1812, and retreated to Cabrera, laying siege to Maracay and Victoria, instead of giving the necessary aid to Puerto Cabello. This caused discontent among his companions of the junta. He was finally forced to capitulate in Victoria, 25 July, 1812, and, accused of being a traitor, he was taken prisoner on 30 July, by the revolutionary authorities in Laguayra. He afterward fell into the hands of the Spanish authorities, and was sent in 1813 to Cadiz, where he died in the dungeons of the Inquisition with a chain around his neck.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

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