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TOLEDO, Francisco de, viceroy of Peru, born in Andalusfit about 1520; died in Seville about 1583. He belonged to the noble family of Oropesa, and in 1569 was appointed viceroy of Peru, taking charge of the government in Lima on 26 November of that year. When the grandson of Huaina-Capac, Tupac-Amaru, who, after the death of his brother, Sayri-Tupae, was considered by the natives as the heir to the crown, refused to surrender, Toledo, under the pretext of forwarding re-enforcements to Chili, sent in 1572 an expedition of 250 men into the mountains of Vilcabamba, where the young inca was in hiding with some followers. Martin de Loyola, with a small force, surprised the prince, who was carried prisoner to Cuzco, and, after a mock trim by the judge, Loarte, was judicially murdered by order of the viceroy. Toledo was a legislator and statesman of considerable ability and industry, and future viceroys referred to his enactments as authority. He arranged that the Indians should be governed by chiefs of their own race, and fixed the tribute to be paid by them, exempting all men under the age of eighteen and over fifty, thus putting a stop to arbitrary demands. He virtually abolished the old system of mita, or forced native labor, although, in deference to the demands of the colonists, he enacted that a seventh part of the adult male population of every village should still be obliged to work for the Spaniards, but limiting the distance they might be taken from their homes and fixing a reward for their services. The Indians admitted that the country had not been so well governed since the time of Inca Yupanqui. He was recalled in 1581, and on 23 September of that year delivered the government to his successor, Martin Enriquez de Ahnansa, returning to Spain, where he was arrested on the charge of malversation of public funds, and died in prison.
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