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WINES, Enoch Cobb, philanthropist, born in Hartover, New Jersey, 17 February, 1806; died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 10 December, 1879. He was graduated at Middlebury in 1827, and in 1829 was commissioned teacher of midshipmen in the United States navy. In 1832 he purchased Edgehill school, at Princeton, New Jersey Afterward he removed to Philadelphia, where he was a professor in the City high-school, and subsequently he purchased a classical school at Burlington, New Jersey He then studied theology, and was pastor of Congregational churches in Cornwall, Vermont, and East Hampton, Long Island, New York In 1853 he was chosen to the chair of ancient languages in Washington college, Pennsylvania, and in 1859 to the presidency of the City university of St. Louis, Missouri He accepted, in 1862, the secretaryship of the New York prison association, and from that date until his death his talents and energy were devoted to the study of penology, and to the promotion of reform in the administration of criminal law, and in the conduct of penal institutions throughout the world. In 1866, in conjunction with Dr. Theodore W. Dwight, of Columbia law-school, he made a tour of inspection of the prisons and reformatories of the United States, of which they submitted a report, in 1867, to the legislature of New York. In 1870, through his personal efforts, the first National prison congress assembled at Cincinnati, at which was formed the National prison association, of which Dr. Wines was unanimously chosen secretary, which post he filled until the close of his life. Similar National congresses were organized by him at Baltimore in 1872, at St. Louis in 1874, and in New York in 1876. In 1871 the New York legislature authorized the appointment of three commissioners, to investigate the question of the relations between prison and free labor. Dr. Wines was appointed a member of this commission, and wrote its report, which was pronounced in its opposition to maintaining convicts in idleness. In this same year Dr. Wines was appointed by President Grant, under authority of a joint resolution of congress, United States commissioner to organize an International penitentiary congress at London, and he was sent abroad for the purpose of making the necessary diplomatic representations to foreign governments. When the congress assembled, 4 July, 1872, delegates were present from twenty-six nations, Dr. Wines representing both the United States and Mexico. At the second congress, at Stockholm, in 1878, he was chosen honorary president. At the International penitentiary congress which assembled in Rome in November, 1885, Count di Foresta, an Italian senator, said of him: "It is to him more than to any other individual that we owe the initiation of the movement for the reformation of prisoners, which is the glory of the latter half of the 19th century." Middlebury gave him the degree of D. D. in 1853 and Washington that of LL. D. in 1857. His works include "Two Years and a Half in the Navy" (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1832) ; "A Trip to China" (Boston, 1832); "Hints on Popular Education," believed to be the first systematic treatise on this subject published in the United States (Philadelphia, 1838);" How shall I govern my School?" (1838); "Commentaries on the Laws of the Ancient Hebrews" (New York, 1852); "Adam and Christ" (1855) ; "Historical and Farewell Discourses" (1859) ; "The True Penitent" (Philadelphia, 1862) ; "Treatise on Regeneration " (1863) ; " An Essay on Temptation" (1865) ; "The Prisons and Reformatories of the United States and Canada" (1867); "The Promises of God " (1868) ; and "State of Prisons and Child-saving Institutions" (Cambridge, 1880).--His son, Frederick Howard, clergyman, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 9 April, 1838, was graduated at Washington college, Pennsylvania, in 1857, served as tutor there, and afterward studied at Princeton theological seminary, but left because of weakness of the eyes. He was licensed by the presbytery of St. Louis in 1860, and in 1862 was commissioned hospital chaplain in the National army. He was on duty at Springfield, Missouri, till 1864, and participated in the battle of Springfield, 8 January, 1863, being mentioned by name in the official report for bravery on the field. He was graduated at Princeton seminary in 1865, and called to the 1st Presbyterian church of Springfield, Illinois, where he remained four years. In 1869 he became secretary of the newly created board of State commissioners of public charities for the state of Illinois, which post he still holds. Mr. Wines was active in effecting an organization of similar boards throughout the country, under the name of the National conference of charities and correction, of which at Louisville, in 1883, he was the president. In 1879 he conducted the investigations as to the number and condition of the defective, dependent, and delinquent classes in the United States, and his report constitutes a separate volume of the "Tenth Census." In 1886 he established a monthly journal entitled "The International Record of Charities and Correction," which is published in New York and London. He represented Illinois in the International penitentiary congress at Stockholm, in 1878. The result of his observations there was embodied in a report to the legislature, and he recommended the construction of the new Hospital for the insane, at Kankakee, Illinois, on the "detached ward" or "village " system, an event which marks an era in the history of the care of the insane in this country. In 1887 Mr. Wines was elected secretary of the National prison association, and succeeded to the post that was formerly held by his father. His writings, apart from reports, have been chiefly pamphlets. Among them are "The County Jail System, an Argument for its Abolition," read at the New York prison congress (1878); " The Kankakee Hospital" (1882) ; "Provision for the Insane in the United States," an historical sketch (1885) ; " Conditional Liberation, or the Paroling of Prisoners," written for the Atlanta prison congress (1886) ; and " American Prisons in the Tenth Census" (1888).
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