Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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MULGRAVE, Constantine John Phipps, Baron, English navigator, born in England in 1744" died there in 1792. He early entered the British navy, commanded a northeast arctic exploring expedition in 1773, and returned in the same year, after reaching latitude 80. 41' N., beyond which lay an impenetrable field of ice. Subsequently he became commissioner of the admiralty, held other important offices, and was made Baron Mulgrave, 16 June, 1790. At his death the English barony became extinct, but his Irish barony devolved upon his brother.--His brother, Henry Phipps, soldier, born in England, 4 February, 1755; died there, 7 April, 1831, was colonel of the 31st regiment of foot, governor of Scarborough, and lord-lieutenant and custos rotulorum of the East Riding in York county. He served in the British army during the Revolutionary war, and was afterward a member of William Pitt's cabinet, and was first lord of the admiralty in 1807. He was a bitter opponent of Catholic emancipation. On 7 September, 1812, he was raised to the rank of Viscount Normanby and Earl of Mulgrave.--Henry's son, Constantine Henry, first Marquis of Normanby, British statesman, born in Mulgrave castle, York, 15 May, 1797; died in Hamilton Lodge, South Kensington, 28 July, 1863. He was educated at Harrow, and at Trinity college, Cambridge, where he took his degree of M. A. in 1S1S. He entered parliament as a member for Scarborough in that year, and made his first speech in the house of commons in 1819 in favor of the Roman Catholic claims. He shortly afterward resigned his seat and retired to Italy. In 1822 he was elected member for Higham Ferrars, and in 1826 he was chosen representative of the borough of Malton, and gave his support to Mr. Canning's administration. He was then a Liberal, and a popular member of the lower house. He succeeded his father as Earl Mulgrave in April, 1831, and in 1832 was appointed captain-general and governor of Jamaica. During his administration he carried into effect the recent legislation for the abolition of slavery, and succeeded in suppressing a dangerous military revolt without bloodshed. Ha became lord privy seal in 1833, was lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 1835-'9, and was created Marquis of Normanby, 25 June, 1838. He was afterward secretary of state for the colonies in 1839, home secretary in 1839-'41, ambassador at Paris in 1846-'52, and from 1854 till 1858 held the same post at Florence. He was made a knight of the garter in 1851. Lord Normanby constantly opposed the foreign policy of Lord Palmerston. He was the author of some political pamphlets; " A Year of Revolution," from his journal in Paris (2 vols., 1851) ; and several novels, among them "Matilda" (1825) and " Yes and No" (1827).--Constantine Henry's son, George Augustus Constantine Phipps, second Marquis of Normanby, born 23 July, 1819, entered the Scots fusilier guards in 1838, and was comptroller, and subsequently treasurer, of the Queen's household from 1853 till 1858, when he was appointed governor of Nova Scotia. He retained this office till his succession to his father's title, 28 July, 1863, when he resigned. He was nominated governor of Queensland, 8 April, 1871, governor of New Zealand in 1874, and in December, 1878, governor of Victoria. He was member of parliament for Scar-borough for nine years, and was sworn a privy councillor in 1851.
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