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Christmas 1776 - A Stan Klos Commentary

December 25th, 1776

With General George Washington’s withdrawal first from New York and then from New Jersey in 1776 the nervousness of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence increased as the British advanced towards Philadelphia. The Continental Congress began passing odd resolutions. On December 10 a resolution directed Washington and Putnam in military matters.  The following day another appointed a day of fasting and humiliation, recommending to "all the members of the United States, and particularly the officers civil and military under them, the exercise of repentance and reformation," the strict observation of the Articles of War, and particularly of those forbidding profane swearing and all immorality.

The most damaging resolution was passed on December 11, 1776 when it was resolved that:

"Whereas a false and malicious report hath been spread by the enemies of America that the Congress was about to disperse: Resolved, That General Washington be desired to contradict the said scandalous report in general orders, this Congress having a better opinion of the spirit and vigour of the army, and of the good people of these states than to suppose it can be necessary to disperse. Nor will they adjourn from the city of Philadelphia in the present state of affairs, unless the last necessity shall direct it."

Charles Thomson, Secretary of Congress, sent this resolve to George Washington who received it near Trenton Falls on December 12th.  On that very same day Congress resolved:

"That, until the Congress shall otherwise order, General Washington be possessed of full power to order and direct all things relative to the department, and to the operations of war."

And quickly adjourned to Baltimore while Washington was faced with addressing their December 11th resolution. On December 21 in the new Continental Capital Congress once again voted and:

"Resolved, That Mr. President inform General Washington by letter, that Congress approve his conduct in not publishing in general orders the resolve of Congress of the 11 instant."

December 1776 was a desperate time for these new United States and thankfully the wealthiest man in Philadelphia, Delegate Robert Morris stayed behind to conduct business with Commander-in Chief George Washington writing:

"The unfinished business of the Marine and Secret Committees, I intended to confine myself to, but I hear so many complaints and see so much confusion from other quarters that I am obliged to advise in things not committed to me. Circumstanced as our affairs now are I conceive it better to take Liberty's and assume some powers than to let the general interest suffer."

On December the 22nd Washington wrote Delegate Morris:

“Dear Sir:

Your favor of yesterday came duly to hand, and I thank you for the several agreeable articles of Intelligence therein contained for godsake hurry Mr. Mease with the Clothing as nothing will contribute more to facilitate the recruiting Service than warm and comfortable Clothing to those who engage. Muskets are not wanted at this place, nor should they, or any other valuable Stores (in my judgment) be kept in Philadelphia, for sorry I am to inform you, my dear Sir, that unless the Militia repair to the City for defense of it, I see no Earthly prospect of saving of it after the last of this Instant; as that fatal vote of Congress respecting the appointment of new Officers has put the Recruiting business upon such a footing, and introduced so much confusion into the old Regiments, that I see no chance of raising Men out of them; by the first of next Month then, we shall be left with five Regiments of Virginia, one of Maryland, General Hands and the remains of Miles; Reduced so much by Sickness, fatigue etc… as in the whole not to exceed, but fall short of, 1200 Men. Upon these and the Militia, is all our dependence, for you may as well attempt to stop the Winds from blowing, or the Sun in its diurnal, as the Regiments from going when their term is expired.

I think with you Sir (that however missed you may be in Congress) your presence in the City cannot be dispensed with,I will give you the earliest information in my power of immediate danger; in the meantime, I advise for the reasons before mentioned that you detain no Papers you can possibly do with out, for I am satisfied the Enemy wait for two events only to begin their operations upon Philadelphia. Ice for a Passage, and the dissolution of the poor remains of our debilitated Army.

General Sullivan is just come up with the Troops under General Lee, about 2000 Men. General Gates is here, and a small division under him of about 600 expected to-day; this with about four or five and twenty hundred at most, here before, composes the strength of my Army (the City Militia excepted) but this under the rose.

Alas poor Lee! Taken by his own Imprudence! We have no distinct accts. of him, if any should arrive, Mr. Tilghman or I, will communicate them to you. Insults accompanied the taking of him, since that I have heard that he was treated well by Lord Cornwallis to whom he was first Carried.

The Commissary (Mr. Wharton) informs me that, he can not prevail on the Millers to grind; and that the Troops in consequence, are like to suffer for want of Flour; this if I under stand him proceeds either from disaffection, or an unwillingness to take Continental Money in pay, which in fact is the same thing, this must be remedied by fair, or other means. With sincere regard, I am your most humble and obedient servant

George Washington


The following Christmas Day letters give a good indication of what challenges the 13 independent but United States faced in 1776:

 

George Washington, Commander-in-Chief
to
Robert Morris, Signer
December 25th, 1776

"Dear Sir:

 

I have your obliging favors of the 21st. and 23rd the Blankets are come to hand, but I would not have any of the other Goods sent on, till you hear again from me.

I agree with you, that it is in vain to ruminate upon, or even reflect upon the Authors or Causes of our present Misfortunes, we should rather exert ourselves, and look forward with Hopes that some lucky Chance may yet turn up in our Favor. Bad as our prospects are, I should not have the least doubt of Success in the End, did not the late Treachery and defection of those who stood foremost in the Opposition, while Fortune smiled upon us, make me fearful that many more will follow their Example, who by using their Influence with some, and working upon the Fears of others, may extend the Circle so as to take in whole Towns, Counties, nay Provinces. Of this we have a recent Instance in Jersey, and I wish many parts of Pennsylvania may not be ready to receive the Yoke.

The Security of the Continental Ships of War in Delaware is certainly a capital Object, and yet to draft, the many hands necessary to fit them out, from the Militia, might be dangerous just now, perhaps in a little time hence, their places may be supplied with Country Militia, and then if the exigency of Affairs re quires it, they certainly ought to be spared.

I will just hint to you a proposition that was made or rather talked of a few days ago by the Officers of two New England Regiments whose time of Service will expire on the first of January, They are most of them Watermen, and they said their Men would willingly go on Board the Frigates and navigate them round to any of the ports in New England, if it was thought they would be safer there than in Delaware. You may think of this, and let me hear from you on the Subject, if the proposition pleases you. Lieutenant Boger of the Navy is already gone in and I have made a demand of Lieutenant Josiah in Exchange, but I have not heard whether Lord Howe accedes to it. I will procure the Release of Deer. Hodge as soon as it can be done without injuring others by giving him the preference, as I have always made it a rule to demand those first who have been long est in Captivity. I will take the same Steps in regard to Mr. Jones, commander of the Ship taken by the Andrew Doria.

I shall take the earliest Opportunity of sending in your Letter to General Lee with the Bill drawn upon Major Small.

 From an intercepted Letter from a person in the Secrets of the Enemy, I find their Intentions are to cross Delaware as soon as the Ice is sufficiently strong. I mention this that you may take the necessary Steps for the Security of such public and private property as ought not to fall into their hands, should they make themselves Masters of Philadelphia of which they do not seem to entertain the least doubt.

 I hope the next Christmas will prove happier than the present to you and to Dear Sir, etc.

P.S. I would just ask whether you think Christeen a safe Place for our Stores?  Do not you think they would be safer at Lancaster or somewhere inland?

 

  

Dr. Benjamin Rush, Signer

to
  Richard Henry Lee, Signer
 December 25th, 1776. 

 

"Dear Sir,

My letters I fear will prove troublesome to you but I cannot help it. Your industry as well as zeal in the Service of your country encourage me to convey every hint that occurs to me to your knowledge-being well convinced that if you think them of importance, you will force the congress to attend to them.

 

The Sufferings of our brave Continental troops from the want of cloths exceed all description. I shall not give you or myself the pain of attempting to paint them. It becomes us to do every thing to remedy them as quick as possible, and guard against them for the future. For heaven's sake let it [be] a standing order of Congress that no subject should be broached there for three weeks to come but what relates to the clothing and officering of the Army. I am in hopes we have got a sufficient stock of Woolens for the present year-But what shall we do for linens? Every soldier in the British army is obliged to have four shirts, and to shift twice a week. Clean linen is absolutely necessary to guard against lice and sickness. All the medicines in the world will not make an Army healthy without cleanliness. Suppose an Application is made to every man in America for one or two of his own shirts for the benefit of the Army? The application I am sure will be successful. Col: Griffin informed me that had our scheme for clothing the Army with second hand cloths proposed three months ago in Congress been adopted three fourths of the poor ragged fellows whose times are now expired would have reenlisted. Let nothing prevent the execution of this Scheme but a large supply of new linen which I believe is not to be had. It would tend greatly to preserve the health of our Army if each soldier would have two flannen [sic] shirts instead of two linen ones to wear in wet weather & in the fall of the year. But I fear we have not a sufficient stock of wool by us for that purpose.

 

Nothing new. Col: Griffin with only 800 men keeps Howe's whole army under constant alarms in New Jersey. He has had several successful skirmishes with them.

 

Our militia who crowd in daily call aloud for Action!

 

Yours,

 

Benjn Rush

 

 William Ellery, Signer
to
 Nicholas Cooke
December 25th, 1776. 

 

 

"Sir,

 

I did myself the Honor of writing to you by Capt. Garzia the 10th Instant; since which nothing new hath taken Place that I know of, in the Army excepting the Capture of General Lee by a Party of the Enemy's Light Horse on the 13th. By some Fatality, as General Sullivan in a Letter to Congress expresses himself, General Lee with his Family took Lodging in a Farm House about Three Miles distant from the Army under his Command. Some Tories informed the Enemy of his Situation. They sent off 70 Light Horse to take him, who surrounded and attacked the House. The General with his Family made a manly Resistance, but were finally obliged to submit, and the poor General was carried away captive. A Fatality strange indeed for some Time past hath seemed to attend our Affairs. The Loss of Fort Washington, where 2600 of our Men were captivated in an inglorious Manner, The Loss of Fort Lee by Surprise, with a great Quantity of Stores, and the Capture of the General who was honored by his Name being given to that Fort, & in Short all our Affairs have in a strange Manner proceeded.

 

I hope in God better Fortune will attend our future Operations.

 

General Howe's Army by our last Advices had extended itself along the Delaware towards the North principally, with an apparent Design to pass the River. General Washington had posted his Army along the River so as to obstruct their Passage. Some of the Militia of Pennsylvania, the Lower Counties and Maryland are about to reinforce and some have actually reinforced his Army; and General Sullivan on whom the Command of the Division, late under the Command of the unhappy Lee, is devolved, was on the 13th of this Month marching to join him. When they join they will together make a respectable Army, sufficient to prevent Howe's entering Pennsylvania. Indeed the Armies must before this have formed a Junction; if General Sullivan's Division hath not been repulsed by General Howe. We expect to hear from Philadelphia every Moment; if any thing New shall arrive before I am obliged to close my Letter. You have doubtless before this heard of the Removal of Congress to this Place. This is the first Opportunity I have had and this is circuitous (via Boston) to inform you of it. The Enemy was so near, and Affairs in the City in such Confusion that it was improper and unsafe to continue there, and for Reasons too long for a Letter Baltimore was fixed upon as the most suitable Place for holding Congress in for the present. I should like the Place well enough if it was less distant from the Army, less dirty and less expensive. It is long since I have heard from my Constituents. What is doing and how Matters stand in our State I know no more than an Inhabitant of the Moon; although it would be beneficial to have every necessary Information seasonably …

What I have wrote on this Head goes on a Supposition, that a Fleet with a large Body of Troops is at Rhode-Island, and flows from that warm Regard I have for the State of Rhode-Island and the glorious Cause in which We are embarked. In this Cause I am willing to exert and have exerted my best abilities; for this I have suffered great Anxiety, have left Wife and Children and the sweetest & closest Connections in Life. Where my Wife and Children are I know not. I hope they have escaped from Rhode-Island, and are not fallen into the Hands of the Enemy. If they should have been so unhappy, I hope that the State will interfere in their Behalf and procure their Release.

I wish that an additional Delegate may have been chosen, and that he may have set off for Congress. If it should not have been done I hope it will be speedily done, and that an Addition might be made to the Salary already voted; and I believe that the Assembly will not think Me mercenary, nor an Addition unnecessary when they are informed that I am obliged to give Six Dollars a Week for Boarding myself, and that every article of living is doubled within a year or Two. I ask no more of the State than sufficient to give me a decent Support while I am in its Service, and I know the Generosity of my Constituents too well to doubt of their Dispositions to do what is right in this instance. To that Generosity and good Disposition I readily submit this Matter, and am with the sincerest Regard their, and your Honor's Friend & humble Servant,

 

William Ellery"

 

 

Matthew Thornton, Signer

to
Meshech Weare  

December 25th, 1776. 

 

 

"Honorable Sir,

 

The near Approach of the Enemy to Philadelphia, the Slowness of the Militia, & the advice of Friends, indus'd the Congress to adjourn to this Town, which is about 110 Miles Southwest from Philadelphia. By our last Advices the Militia is joining our army in great numbers, from which we have great hopes that General Howe, & his army will Soon be in our power, or Return to New York. The Congress have encouragement of Assistance by the Spring. Nothing will be wanting on their part, to Support independence, Defeat the Enemy, & Render the united States, Great, Honorable, & Happy.

 

An inexcusable Neglect in the Off[ice]rs, want of Fidelity, Honor, & Humanity, in the D[octo]rs, & Averice in the Suttlers, has Slain ten Soldiers to the Enemies one, & will soon prevent everyman of Common Sense from putting his Life, & fortune in the Power of Such as Destroy both without pity, or mercy. I have proposed to Congress, that every State, in future, Should Appoint one or more Suttlers, as they think proper for their own Men to be Supplied by a Committee Appointed by Said State, with everything Necessary for Sick, & well men, at a price Stipulated by said State, the Suttlers, & Committee to be paid by, & accountable to said States, & a Superintendent, who Shall have no Other Business but to See that every Soldier Belonging to the State, is properly Supplied, & Supported, agreeable to their Circumstances; & that proper Stoppages be made for what they Receive when they are Receiving their wages.

 

The Congress approve of the method, but Say it is the Business, & Duty of each State, to take Care of their own men, & they Expect they will. This may appear Expensive, but when it is Considered, that by this or Some better method that the Council, & Assembly think off we may Soon (when it is Published) have an army in the field able to Defeat any Britain Can Send, & without it we Shall Soon have none But Officers, all which is Humbly Submitted to the wisdom & prudence of the Honorable Council, & Assembly, by him who has the Honor to be, Honorable Gentlemen.,

 

Your Most Obedient Humble Servant

 

Matthew Thornton

 

P.S. The Honble Col. Whipple is well. I have received no Letter Since I left New-Hampshire. Please to take the trouble to present my Compliment to the Honble Council, & Assembly, & to Wm. Parker Esqr."

 

 

John Hancock, President
to
Certain States
December 25, 1776

 

"Gentlemen,

 

Since I did myself the Honour of addressing you last on the Subject of the enclosed Resolve,(1) the Congress have received fresh Intelligence from Generals Schuyler & Gates, urging the Necessity of an immediate Compliance therewith. In Consequence of which they have ordered me to represent to you that without your immediate Aid and Assistance the important Fortress of Ticonderoga will unavoidably fall into the Hands of our Enemies, the Troops who at present garrison that and the adjacent Posts having determined not to continue there after the Term of their Enlistment expires.

 

It is needless to use Arguments on the Occasion, or to point the dreadful Consequences, to Gentlemen already fully acquainted with them, of leaving the back Settlements of the New England States open to the Ravages of our merciless Foes. If any Thing can add to your Exertions at this Time, it must be the Reflection that your own most immediate Safety calls upon you to strain every Nerve. Should we heedlessly abandon the Post of Ticonderoga, we give up inconceivable Advantages. Should we resolutely maintain it (and it is extremely capable of Defense) we may bid Defiance to General Carlton and the Northern Army under his Command. But our Exertions for this Purpose must be immediate, or they will not avail any Thing. The thirty first of this Inst, the Time will expire for which the Troops in that important Garrison were enlisted, and Lake Champlain will, in all Probability be frozen over soon after. For the Sake therefore of all that is dear to Freemen, be entreated to pay immediate Attention to this Requisition of Congress, and let Nothing divert you from it. The Affairs of our Country are in a Situation to admit of no Delay. They may still be retrieved, but not without the greatest Expedition and Vigour.

 

If Nothing was at Stake but your own Peace and Security, I should not be so earnest on the Occasion. It is the Fate of Posterity (which depends on our Conduct) that stamps a Value on the present Cause. I beseech you therefore by all that is sacred-by that Love of Liberty and your Country, which you have always manifested- by those Ties of Honour which bind you to the Common Cause- by that Love of Virtue and Happiness which animates all good Men, and finally-by your Regard for succeeding Generations, that you will, without a Moment's Delay, exert yourselves to forward the Troops for Ticonderoga from your States agreeably to the enclosed Requisition of Congress.

 

I have the Honor to be, Gentlemen,

your most obedient & very humble Servant

 

John Hancock, President"

 

 

 

Oliver Wolcott, Signer
to
Laura Wolcott
December 25, 1776

 

 

"My Dear,

 

I wrote to you the 13t from Philadelphia by Tim. Dodd of Hartford wherein I informed you that the Congress had adjourned themselves hither. They Met on Business at this Place the 20t and will probably continue here a few Months. I Wrote to you Letters of the 11th and 5t Inst., also two others of the 24t and 16t last. By the Bearers of the Letters of the 5th and 11th I sent you some Books. I mention these Things a little particularly as some of my Letters may have miscarried. I have recd. none from home but one from Mr. Adams of the 15t October which I have acknowledged and three from Mr. Lyman the last of the 23t Nov. He mentions his having sent one by Mr. Sherman which is not come to hand.

 

You Excuse yourself from Writing to Me on Acco. of the Difficulty and uncertainty of Conveyance, but I should think if Letters were left with Mr. Stanton to forward them by Expresses which will probably pretty frequently pass thro Litchfield they might come safe, but you and my Friends must consider the Delivery of Letters as a Matter of some Uncertainty but if Letters should fall into the Hands of the Foe, such as come from you and my Friends I am sure I shall never be ashamed of, and as for mine they will find more trouble in Reading them, than Entertainment.

 

I am conveniently Situated in this Place and Lodge with a couple of Friends, Dr. Hall formerly of Connecticut and Mr. Ellery of R. Island. By the Blessing of God I enjoy Health except a slight cold which will soon go off. Nothing Material in respect of News since my last except the surprising and unexpected Capture of General Lee which you have or will soon hear of.

 

I am still here alone from Connecticut which I do not Very Well know what else to attribute to except that affairs since last July Wear such a benign aspect as to render the Circumstance of a Delegation a Matter of a good deal of Indifference.

 

My kindest Love to my Children and Friends and May God grant you and them his choicest Favors.

 

I am yours,

 

With the tenderness Affection,

Oliver Wolcott

P.S. When I shall have the pleasure of Seeing You and my Family is Very uncertain, but it is not probable that it will be earlier than the next spring. Take Care of your Health, and suffer not yourself to be Anxious in Regard to any affairs of Life. The God who has hitherto taken Care of us will still I trust Grant his Protection to you and me. I shall write a Letter to Mr. Lyman if I have time. Should I not I hope he will not take it Amiss, nor forbear to write to me. At present I have no other Objections against this Town of which in some future Letters I may give you a particular Acco. of than that it is too Distant from my Friends and is too dirty and too dear. You will I hope consider this Letter as Wrote in haste. "

 

Finally, to everyone’s surprise, except George Washington, the Commander-in-Chief and about 2,500 Continental soldiers on Christmas night crossed the ice-clogged Delaware River from Pennsylvania; early the next morning they surprised Hessian mercenaries in the British service encamped at Trenton, N.J. winning what is now known as the Battle of Trenton.”

 

The ever faithful Robert Morris who had used a large amount of her personal fortune to cloth, arm and pay the soldiers wrote George Washington on December 26th:

 

Dear Sir,

 

I have just received yours of yesterday and will duly attend to those things you recommend to my consideration. At present I have to enclose you a letter from Congress which I suppose Contains their resolves of the 20th Inst. but as the President does not say in his letter to me that they are enclosed to you & as it is necessary you should have them I take the liberty to send herewith a Copy of them.

 

I am well pleased to see the attention they pay General Lee and I shall make a point to Collect & send your Excellency soon as possible the one hundred half Johannes they order. You observe Mr. Clymer, Mr. Walton & myself are appointed a Committee to transact the Continental business here that may be necessary & proper, and I apprehend it will frequently be necessary that we should know the substance of your Correspondence with Congress. Your letters to the President if sent open under our Cover shall always meet dispatch & their Contents kept secret, & when you think it improper we should see them before the Congress Seal them & they shall go forward untouched & if you don’t approve of submitting them to our inspection at all write us freely & your wishes in that respect shall be complied with.

 

We have just heard of your Success at Trenton. The acct is but imperfect but we learn you are master of that place & of all the baggage & Stores our Enemies had there & of 300 Prisoners and that your Troops were still in pursuit of the flying Enemy. I have just wrote to Congress & told them thus much as the substance of an Acct just come down & I told them further I had been informed that you had executed in this matter your part of a well Concerted plan, that General Heath at Hackensack had orders from you, & that General Ewing & Colonel Cadwallader also had orders to Cross Delaware at the same time you did, but had been prevented by Driving Ice. Good News sets all the Animal Spirits to Work, the imagination is heated & I could not help adding, that I expected General Heath was to Continue his march towards Brunswick which would draw the attention of any Troops posted there & at Prince Town, while you would pursue the flying Hero's to Bordentown & Burlington where Ewing & Cadwallader would stop them & cut of their Communication with the 2000 Hessians & Highlanders that came after Griffin, nay I almost promised them that you should by following up this first blow, finish the Campaign of 1776 with that escalades that your numerous Friends & admirers have long wished for. I congratulate you most heartily on what is done & am with perfect esteem, Dear sir,

 

Your Excellency's Most obedt servt,

 

Robt Morris"

 


GEORGE WASHINGTON to JOHN HANCOCK
Head Quarters, Newton,
December 27, 1776.

"Sir:

I have the pleasure of Congratulating you upon the success of an enterprize which I had formed against a Detachment of the Enemy lying in Trenton, and which was executed yesterday Morning. The Evening of the 25th I ordered the Troops intended for this Service [which were about 2400] to parade back of McKonkey's Ferry, that they might begin to pass as soon as it grew dark, imagining we should be able to throw them all over, with the necessary Artillery, by 12 O'Clock, and that we might easily arrive at Trenton by five in the Morning, the distance being about nine Miles. But the Quantity of Ice, made that Night, impeded the passage of the Boats so much, that it was three O'Clock before the Artillery could all get over, and near four, before the Troops took up their line of march.

This made me despair of surprising the Town, as I well knew we could not reach it before the day was fairly broke, but as I was certain there was no making a Retreat without being discovered, and harassed on repassing the River, I determined to push on at all Events. I form'd my detachments into two divisions one to March by the lower or River Road, the other by the upper or Pennington Road. As the Divisions had nearly the same distance to March, I ordered each of them, immediately upon forcing the out Guards, to push directly into the Town, that they might charge the Enemy before they had time to form. The upper Division arrived at the Enemys advanced post, exactly at Eight O'Clock, and in three Minutes after, I found, from the fire on the lower Road that, that Division had also got up. The out Guards made but small Opposition, tho' for their Numbers, they behaved very well, keeping up a constant retreating fire from behind Houses. We presently saw their main Body formed, but from their Motions, they seemed undetermined how to act. Being hard pressed by our Troops, who had already got possession of part of their Artillery, they attempted to file off by a road on their right leading to Princetown, but perceiving their Intention, I threw a body of Troops in their Way which immediately checked them. Finding from our disposition that they were surrounded, and that they must inevitably be cut to pieces if they made any further Resistance, they agreed to lay down their Arms. The Number, that submitted in this manner, was 23 Officers and 886 Men. Col Rall. the commanding Officer with seven others were found wounded in the Town. I dont exactly know how many they had killed, but I fancy not above twenty or thirty, as they never made any regular Stand. Our loss is very trifling indeed, only two Officers and one or two privates wounded. I find, that the Detachment of the Enemy consisted of the three Hessian Regiments of Lanspatch, Kniphausen and Rohl amounting to about 1500 Men, and a Troop of British Light Horse, but immediately upon the beginning of the Attack, all those who were, not killed or taken, pushed directly down the Road towards Bordentown. These would likewise have fallen into our hands, could my plan have been compleatly carried into Execution. General Ewing was to have crossed before day at Trenton Ferry, and taken possession of the Bridge leading out of Town, but the Quantity of Ice was so great, that tho' he did every thing in his power to effect it, he could not get over.

This difficulty also hindered General Cadwallader from crossing, with the Pennsylvania Militia, from Bristol, he got part of his Foot over, but finding it impossible to embark his Artillery, he was obliged to desist. I am fully confident, that could the Troops under Generals Ewing and Cadwallader have passed the River, I should have been able, with their Assistance, to have driven the Enemy from all their posts below Trenton. But the Numbers I had with me, being inferior to theirs below me, and a strong Battalion of Light Infantry at Princeton above me, I thought it most prudent to return the same Evening, with my prisoners and the Artillery we had taken. We found no Stores of any Consequence in the Town. In justice to the Officers and Men, I must add, that their Behaviour upon this Occasion, reflects the highest honor upon them. The difficulty of passing the River in a very severe Night, and their march thro' a violent Storm of Snow and Hail, did not in the least abate their Ardour. But when they came to the Charge, each seemed to vie with the other in pressing forward, and were I to give a preference to any particular Corps, I should do great injustice to the others. Colonel Baylor, my first Aid de Camp, will have the honor of delivering this to you, and from him you may be made acquainted with many other particulars; his spirited Behaviour upon every Occasion, requires me to recommend him to your particular Notice. I have the honor &ca.

P.S. Enclosed you have a particular List of the Prisoners, Artillery and other Stores.

 

HAPPY HOLIDAYS!

 

Stanley L. Klos


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Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

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