Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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COLTON, Calvin, clergyman, born in Long-meadow, Massachusetts, in 1789; died in Savannah, Georgia, 13 3larch, 1857. He was graduated at Yale in 1812, and at Andover seminary in 1815, and settled over the Presbyterian church in Batavia, New York Subsequently he entered the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal church, but relinquished preaching in 1826 from failure of his voice. After a long tour through the United States, he went to England in 1831, as correspondent of the New York "Observer," and remained four years. After his return to the United States he took orders in the Episcopal church, and published "Thoughts on the Religious State of the Country, and Reasons for Preferring Episcopacy." But he soon resumed the journalistic profession, and distinguished himself as a writer of political tracts and articles advocating the principles of the Whig party. From 1842 till 1844 he edited the "True Whig" in Washington. In 1852 he became professor of political economy in Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut He published in England "A Manual for Emigrants to America," and "History and Character of American Revivals of Religion" (1832); also "The Americans, by an American in London" (1833)" "American Cottager" and "A Tour of the Lakes" (1833) : and "Church and State in America, being a Reply to the Bishop of London." After his return from England he published "Four Years in Great Britain" (New York, 1835); "Protestant Jesuitism" (1836); "Abolition a Sedition" and "Abolition and Colonization Contrasted" (1838); "A Voice from America to England" (1839): "The Crisis of the Country"; "American Jacobinism" ; and" One Presidential Term "(1840). In 1840 appeared a series of political tracts called the "Junius Papers," which were widely circulated, and enlarged and republished in 1844. The same year he published "The Rights of Labor" (New York); in 1846, "Life and Times of Henry Clay," the materials for which he obtained from Mr. Clay, whom he visited for the purpose in 1844; and in 1848, "Public Economy for the United States," containing an elaborate argument in favor of the protective policy. While a professor at Trinity College he published " The Genius and Mission of the Episcopal Church in the United States" (New York, 1853), prepared for the press the "Private Correspondence of Henry Clay" (1855), wrote "The Last Seven Years of the Life of Henry Clay" (1856), and edited the "Speeches of Henry Clay." --His brother, Walter, author, born in Rutland, Vermont, 9 May, 1797 ; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 22 January, 1851, was graduated at Yale in 1822, and, after teaching and studying theology at Andover, became in 1825 professor of moral philosophy and belles-lettres at Middletown academy, Connecticut In 1828-'a0 he edited the "American Spectator," a Whig paper in Washington, but, becoming a favorite with President Jackson, was appointed chaplain in the navy. In 1831 he sailed to the West Indies in the "Vincennes "; in 1832-'5 he was attached to the "Constellation" on the Mediterranean, in 1837 assigned to the naval station at Charlestown, Massachusetts, and edited the "Colonization Herald," and in 1838 to the chaplaincy of the station at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where, in 1841-'2, he was principal editor of the "North American," and published a pamphlet entitled "The Bible in the Public Schools." In 1845 he was ordered to California, and on 28 July, 1846, was made by Com. Stockton alcalde of Monterey, California After exercising the duties of this office for two months under a military commission, he was confirmed as alcalde by the vote of citizens. He established there the first newspaper in California, which was called the "Californian," and after its removal to San Francisco the "Alta California." He also built the first school-house, and, in a letter to the "North American," made the first public announcement of the discovery of gold. He returned to Philadelphia in 1849. He wrote many lively and interesting books of travel and sea life, the chief of which are "Ship and Shore in Madeira, Lisbon, and the Mediterranean" (New York, 1885); "A Visit to Athens and Constantinople" (1836); "Three Years in California" (1850); "Deck and Port : Incidents of a Cruise to California" (1850). In 1851 the Rev. Henry T. Cheever republished the sketches of Athens and Constantinople under the title "Land and Lee in the Bosphorus and AEgean," and edited "The Sea and Sailor, Notes of France and Italy, and other Literary Remains," with a memoir of the author.
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