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VIOMENIL, Antoine Charles du Houx (ve-o-may-ned), Baron de, French soldier, born in Fauconcourt, Vosges, 30 November, 1728: died in Paris, 9 November, 1792. He was descended from an ancient family of Lorraine, entered the army when he was twelve years of age as sub-lieutenant in the regiment Limousin, was promoted captain in 1747, and was severely wounded at the capture of Bergen-op-Zoom. During the seven years' war in 1756-'63 he served with credit as colonel of the Dauphinois volunteers, and he was commander of the light troops in Conde's army in the campaign of Hanover. He was promoted brigadier-general in 1762, commanded the Hainaut regiment during the Corsican campaign in 1768-'9, and assisted in the pacification of the island. He was made major-general, 3 January, 1770, and sent to Poland, where he captured for the confederation of Bar the fortress of Cracow. In 1780 he was appointed second in command of the army that was sent under Count de Rochambeau to assist the American colonists in their struggle for independence. He was promoted lieutenant-general, 13 June, 1781, and for his gallant conduct at the siege of Yorktown in October, 1781, where he led his troops in the storming of the redoubt, was given the grand cross of St. Louis. After the conclusion of peace he was governor of La Rochelle in 1783-'9, and at the time of Louis XVI.'s flight in 1791 was named to accompany the royal family. At the attack on the Tuileries palace, 10 August, 1792, he was so severely wounded in defending the king that he died a few weeks later. See "Lettres particulieres du Baron de Viomenil sur les affaires de Pologne en 1771-'9 " (Paris, 1808).--His brother, Charles Joseph Hyacinthe tin Houx, Marquis de, French soldier, born in the castle of Ruppes, Vosges, 22 August, 1734; died in Paris, 5 March, 1827, entered the military service in 1747, was present at the battle of Lawfeld and at the siege of Bergen-of-Zoom, and in 1757, as aide-de-camp to General Chevert, assisted in the taking of Prague. He commanded a brigade in Corsica in 1768-'9, and was promoted brigadier-general in 1770 and major-general, 4 March, 1780. He came with Rochambeau to this country as commander of the French artillery, took a commendable part in the capture of Yorktown, and was granted a pension of 5,000 francs for his valor in the siege. From February, 1789, till November, 1790, he was governor-general of Martinique, where he vigorously repressed the revolutionary uprisings. He emigrated in 1791, served in the army of Conde in 1792-'7, and went afterward to Russia, where he became general of cavalry and commander-in-chief of the army of Samogitia. In 1801 he went to Portugal at the invitation of King Jogo VI., and was commander-in-chief of the Portuguese army till 1808, when he removed to England. After the restoration of Louis XVIII. he was made a peer of France and lieutenant-general 4 June, 1814; field-marshal, 3 July, 1816; and a marquis, 31 August, 1817. Before this he had been known as the Chevalier de Viomenil.--His cousin, Antoine Louis du Houx, Chevalier de, French soldier, born in Fauconcourt in 1745; died in Dijon in 1788, entered the army in 1760, served with distinction in Germany and Poland as colonel, accompanied in 1.780 his cousin Antoine to this country as his first aide-de-camp, and was severely wounded at the capture of Yorktown in October, 1781. For his services during the war he was made a knight of St. Louis, and granted a pension and a petty government in Burgundy.
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