Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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OLIVER, Andrew, lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 28 March, 1706; died there, 3 March, 1774. His father, Daniel, a member of the council, was a son of Peter, an eminent merchant, and grandson of Thomas, an elder of the church, who arrived in Boston in 1631. The son was graduated at Harvard in 1724. He was chosen a member of the general court, and afterward of the council. In 1748 he was sent with his brother-in-law, Governor Thomas Hutchinson, as a commissioner to the Albany congress that met to conclude peace with the heads of the Six Nations and arrange a rectification of the frontier. In 1756 he was appointed secretary of the province. When the British parliament passed the stamp-act he made himself odious to the patriotic party by accepting the office of distributor of stamps. He was re-elected a councillor by a bare majority On 14 August, 1765, he was hanged in effigy between figures of Lord Bute and George Grenville, on the large elm called the "liberty tree." In the evening the multitude, with cries of "Liberty, property, and no stamps!" demolished the structure that was building for a stamp office. His life was in danger, and the next morning he signed a public pledge that he would not act as stamp-officer. A few months later there was a rumor that he intended to enforce the stamp-act, and on the day of the opening of parliament the Sons of Liberty compelled him to march to the tree and there renew his promise in a speech, and take oath before a justice of the peace, Richard Dana, that he would never, directly or indirectly, take measures for the collection of the stamp duty. In 1770 he was appointed lieutenant-governor, His letters, with those of Hutchinson and others, recommending the despatch of troops to this country, and the criminal prosecution of Samuel Adams and other patriots, were shown to Benjamin Franklin (q. v.) in England, as expressions from Americans of weight and station. Party feeling ran so high at, the time of his death that Hutchinson says" "A large mob attended upon his interment anal hurrahed at the entombing of his body, and that night there was an exhibition at a public window of a coffin, and insignia of infamy."--His brother, Peter, jurist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 26 March, 1713" died in Birmingham, England, 13 October, 1791, was graduated at Harvard in 1730. He filled various offices in Plymouth county while residing on his estate in Middleborough. Although he was not a lawyer by profession, he was made a justice of the supreme court on 14 September, 1756, and in 1771 became chief justice. He was also one of the mandamus councillors. Oliver was the only judge that refused, in March, 1774, to accept the pay that had been voted by the legislature in lieu of a fixed salary of £400 from the crown. I[e was consequently impeached by the house, and suspended from his functions pending the issue of the trial. He attempted to hold court under the protection of the military, but the jurors refused to serve, and gave as their reasons that the chief justice stood impeached, and that three of the judges had accepted seats in the unconstitutional new council. He openly sided with the royalists, defending their views with dialectic skill in a paper called the "Censor." When the British troops evacuated Boston he departed with them, and afterward went to England, where he received a pension from the treasury. He was a writer of talent, both in prose and verse, and fond of antiquarian studies. When he left this country he took with him a copy of the manuscript history of William Hubbard, and records and papers that he had collected relating to the settlement of Plymouth colony. The University of Oxford gave him the degree of LL.D. A poem in English blank verse, the twenty-ninth in "Pietas et Gratulatio" (Boston. 1761), is ascribed to him or to Thomas Oliver. He published a "Speech on the Death of Isaac Lathrop" (Boston, 1750))" " Poem on the Death of Secretary Willard" (1757)" and "Scriptural Lexicon" (Birmingham, 1784-'5).--Andrew's son, Andrew, jurist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 13 November, 1731" died in Salem, Massachusetts, in the beginning of December, 1799, was graduated at Harvard in 1749, and devoted himself to scientific and literary studies. He represented Salem in the general court in 1766, and before the Revolution was judge of the Essex county court of common pleas. He was the only one of those members of the family that adhered to the royalist cause to remain in the country after the war of independence. He was one of the founders of the American academy of arts and sciences, and a member of the American philosophical society, to the transactions of which he contributed papers on" Lightning," "Thunder-Storms," and "Water-Spouts," and an account of a " Disease Among the Indians" (1764). He published also an "Essay on Comets," in which he maintained that they were habitable worlds (Salem, 1772).--Another son, William Sandford, born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1748; died in St. John, New Brunswick, in 1813, went with the British army to Halifax in 1776, settled at Parr Town (now St. John), was appointed in 1785 the first sheriff of St. John, and held that office till 1792, and for the second time from 1797 till his death, at which time he was also treasurer of the county.--Peter's son, Peter, physician, born in Middleborough, Massachusetts, in 1741; died in Shrewsbury, England, 30 July, 1822, was graduated at Harvard in 1761. He signed the address to General Gage, and was banished in 1778. In 1814 the Massachusetts historical society requested permission to transcribe from his father's perfect manuscript copy of Hubbard's "History of New England" the portions missing in the American manuscript, but he refused, and the work was published in a mutilated form (Boston, 1815). (See HUBBARD, THOMAS.) His wife was Sallie, the eldest daughter of Governor Thomas Hutchinson.--The second Andrew's grandson, Daniel, born in Marblehead, Massachusetts, 9 September, 1787; died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1 June, 1842, was the son of Reverend Thomas Fitch Oliver. He was graduated at Harvard in 1806, and at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1810. He practised for many years at Salem, Massachusetts, lectured on chemistry at Dartmouth in 1815-'6, and in 1820 removed to Hanover, New Hampshire, having been appointed professor of the theory and practice of medicine, and of materia medica and therapeutics. In 1827-'8 he lectured on the theory and practice of medicine at Bowdoin. In 1828 he took the chair also of intellectual philosophy at Dartmouth. He resigned his professorships in that college in 1837, and in 1841-'2 was a professor in the medical college at Cincinnati, Ohio. Dr. Oliver was a man of varied erudition, familiar with French and German, as well as the classical languages. He received the degree of LL.D. from Hobart in 1838. His only important publication was "First Lines of Physiology" (Boston, 1835).--Daniel's brother, Benjamin Lynde, author, born in Marblehead, Massachusetts, in 1788; died in 1843, was a lawyer and was also a noted chess-player. His works are "Hints on the Pursuit of Happiness" (Boston, 1818); "The Rights of an American Citizen" (1832); "Law Summary" (2d ed., Hallowell, 1813); "Practical Conveyancing." edited by Peter Oliver (1838; 4th ed. 1845); "Forms of Practice, or American Precedents in Personal and Real Actions" (1841 ; 4th ed., Portland, 1874) ; and "Forms in Chancery, Admiralty, and Common Law" (1842).--Daniel's son, Fitch Edward, physician, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 25 November, 1819, was graduated at Dartmouth in 1839, and studied medicine with his father, with Dr. George C. Shattuck, and at Harvard, where he received his M.D. in 1843. He established himself in practice in Boston. In 1860 he assumed the editorship of the Boston " Medical and Surgical Journal." Inheriting from his father a taste for music, he has published some musical works, he was one of the translators of Chomel's "Treatise on General Pathology" (Boston, 1848), and published the "Lynde Diaries" (1880).--Another son, Peter, author, born in Hanover, New Hampshire, in 1822" died at sea in 1855, was educated as a lawyer, practised in Suffolk county, Massachusetts, and edited his uncle's "Practical Conveyancing." He was baptized William Pynchon Oliver, but changed this name for the alias Peter when he reached manhood. He published articles in the New York " Church Review." Dying while on a voyage for his health, he left an important work entitled "The Puritan Commonwealth" an Historical Review of the Puritan Government in Massachusetts, in its Civil and Ecclesiastical Relations, from its Rise to the Abrogation of the First Charter" together with some General Reflections on the English Colonial Policy and on the Character of Puritanism," in which, with great learning and literary skill, he presented all the unfavorable aspects of the Puritan character, and impugned the motives and principles, and criticised the acts and policy of the founders of New England. The book was brought out by his brother, Pitch Edward (Boston, 1856), and elicited animated replies from Reverend George E. Ellis, J. Wingate Thornton, and others.--Another son, Andrew, clergyman, born in Hanover, New Hampshire, in 1824, was graduated at Harvard in 1842. He studied theology, took orders in the Protestant Episcopal church, and was professor of Greek and Hebrew in St. Stephen's college, Annandale, New York, from 1864 till 1873, when he was called to the chair of biblical learning in the General theological seminary, New York city. He received the degree of D. D. from Hobart in 1868, and from St. Stephen's in 1876. Dr. Oliver has published a translation of the " Syriac Psalter" (Boston, 1861).
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